Asparaginase has been a core component of multiagent treatment regimens in ALL/LBL for more than 40 years1
Asparaginase deprives leukemia cells of asparagine1
- Asparaginase converts serum asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia, depriving leukemia cells of asparagine1
- The depletion of asparagine prohibits RNA and protein synthesis, leading to leukemia cells being unable to proliferate and survive1,2
Since the introduction of asparaginase in ALL treatment protocols, survival estimates have seen steady improvement1,3
Adapted from Pui et al, 2013.3
Maintaining periods of asparagine depletion over the course of therapy is essential to the treatment success of patients treated for ALL/LBL5
RYLAZE is indicated as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen given by intramuscular injection for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in adult and pediatric patients 1 month or older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
RYLAZE is contraindicated in patients with a history of:
- Serious hypersensitivity reactions to Erwinia asparaginase, including anaphylaxis
- Serious pancreatitis during previous asparaginase therapy
- Serious thrombosis during previous asparaginase therapy
- Serious hemorrhagic events during previous asparaginase therapy
Warnings and Precautions
Hypersensitivity reactions after the use of RYLAZE occurred in 25% of patients in clinical trials, and it was severe in 2% of patients. The median time from the first dose of RYLAZE to the onset of the first hypersensitivity event was 27 days (range 1-171 days). The most commonly observed reaction was rash (17%), and no patient experienced a severe rash. The median time from the first dose to the first onset of rash was 33.5 days (range 1-127 days).
Hypersensitivity reactions observed with L-asparaginase class products include angioedema, urticaria, lip swelling, eye swelling, rash or erythema, blood pressure decreased, bronchospasm, dyspnea, and pruritus.
Because of the risk of serious allergic reactions (e.g., life-threatening anaphylaxis), administer RYLAZE in a setting with resuscitation equipment and other agents necessary to treat anaphylaxis (e.g., epinephrine, oxygen, intravenous steroids, antihistamines). Discontinue RYLAZE in patients with serious hypersensitivity reactions.
Pancreatitis was reported in 14% of patients in clinical trials of RYLAZE and was severe in 6%. Clinical pancreatitis occurred in 5% of patients, and it was severe in 4% of patients. Elevated amylase or lipase without clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis was observed in 9% of patients, and it was severe in 2% of patients treated with RYLAZE. Hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis have been reported with L-asparaginase class products.
Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of pancreatitis, which, if left untreated, could be fatal. Evaluate patients with symptoms compatible with pancreatitis to establish a diagnosis. Assess serum amylase and lipase levels in patients with any signs or symptoms of pancreatitis. Discontinue RYLAZE in patients with severe or hemorrhagic pancreatitis. In the case of mild pancreatitis, withhold RYLAZE until the signs and symptoms subside and amylase and/or lipase levels return to 1.5 times the ULN. After resolution of mild pancreatitis, treatment with RYLAZE may be resumed.
Serious thrombotic events, including sagittal sinus thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, have been reported following treatment with L-asparaginase class products. Discontinue RYLAZE for a thrombotic event, and administer appropriate antithrombotic therapy. Consider resumption of treatment with RYLAZE only if the patient had an uncomplicated thrombosis.
Bleeding was reported in 17% of patients treated with RYLAZE, and it was severe in 1%. Most commonly observed reactions were bruising (8%) (contusion, increased tendency to bruise and injection site bruising) and nose bleeding (6%), which was severe in 1% of patients. Other observed bleeding reactions included hematuria (2%), disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (1%), rectal bleeding (1%) and gingival bleeding (1%).
In patients treated with asparaginase class products, hemorrhage may be associated with increased prothrombin time (PT), increased partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and hypofibrinogenemia. Consider appropriate replacement therapy in patients with severe or symptomatic coagulopathy.
Elevated bilirubin and/or transaminases occurred in 62% of patients treated with RYLAZE in clinical trials, and 12% had Grade ≥3 elevations.
Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity. Evaluate bilirubin and transaminases prior to treatment every 2-3 weeks and as indicated clinically during treatment with RYLAZE. In the event of serious liver toxicity, discontinue treatment with RYLAZE and provide supportive care.
Serious adverse reactions occurred in 55% of patients who received RYLAZE. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (in ≥5% of patients) were febrile neutropenia, dehydration, pyrexia, stomatitis, diarrhea, drug hypersensitivity, infection, nausea, and viral infection.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence >20%) with RYLAZE are abnormal liver test (70%), nausea (46%), musculoskeletal pain (39%), fatigue (36%), infection (30%), headache (30%), pyrexia (27%), drug hypersensitivity (24%), febrile neutropenia (24%), decreased appetite (21%), stomatitis (21%), bleeding (21%), and hyperglycemia (21%).
Use in Specific Populations
Pregnancy and Lactation
RYLAZE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective non-hormonal contraceptive methods during treatment with RYLAZE and for 3 months after the last dose. Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with RYLAZE and for 1 week after the last dose.
Please see full Prescribing Information.
ALL=acute lymphoblastic leukemia; LBL=lymphoblastic lymphoma; RNA=ribonucleic acid.
References: 1. Egler RA, Ahuja SP, Matloub Y. L–asparaginase in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2016;7(2):62-71. 2. Pavlova NN, Hui S, Ghergurovich JM, et al. As extracellular glutamine levels decline, asparagine becomes an essential amino acid. Cell Metab. 2018;27(2):428-438. 3. Pui C-H, Evans WE. A 50-year journey to cure childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Hematol. 2013;50(3):185-196. 4. Salzer WL, Asselin BL, Plourde PV, et al. Development of asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014;1329:81-92. 5. Salzer W, Bostrom B, Messinger Y, et al. Asparaginase activity levels and monitoring in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2018;59(8):1797-1806.